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        Writer:sunny yangSource:szcapsun Number of visits: Date:2014-8-2 17:21

        Please note the following  recommendations when using capacitors:

        1.Electrolytic capacitors for DC applications require polarization .Confirm the polarity before use . The circuit  life may be shortened or the capacitor may be damaged if insert in reversed polarity.For use on circuits whose polarity is occasionally reversed,or whose polarity is unknown , use non-polar capacitors . Also note that the electrolytic capacitors cannot be used for AC applications.

        2.Do not apply a voltage exceeding the capacitor's voltage rating.If a voltage exceeding the capacitor's voltage rating is applied, the capacitor may be damaged by  increased leakage current.When using the capacitor with AC voltage do not exceed the rated voltage.

        3.Do not allow excessive ripple current passing.Use the electrolytic capacitor at current value within the permissible ripple range . If the ripple exceeds the specified value,request capacitors for high ripple current applications.

        4.Ascertain the operation temperature range.Use the electrolytic capacitors according to the specified operation temperature range . Use at room temperature will ensure a longer life.

        5.The electrolytic capacitor is not suitable for circuits which are charged and discharged repeatedly.If used in circuits which are charged and discharged repeatedly ,the capacitance value may drop or the capacitor may be damaged.Please consult our engineering department for assistance in these applications

        6.When capacitors have been left unused for long time , use them only after due voltage treatments . Long storage of capacitors tends to rise their leakage current levels.In such cases,be sure to provide the necessary voltage treatment before use

        7.Be careful of temperature and time when soldering.When soldering a printed circuit board with various components,care must be taken that the soldering temperature is not too high and that the dipping time is not too long.Otherwise , there will be adverse effect on the electrical characteristic and insulation sleeve of electrolytic capacitors.In the case of small -size electrolytic capacitors , nothing abnormal will be occurred if dipping is performed at less than 260 ℃ for less than 10 seconds

        8.Cleaning circuit boards after soldering.Halogenated hydrocarbon cleaning solvents are not recommended for use in cleaning capacitors supplied with exposed end seals Where cleaning with a halogenated solvent is desired,capacitors should be ordered with an Epoxy-coated end seal.

        9.Do not apply excessive force to the lead wires or terminals.If excessive force is applied to the lead wires and terminals,they may be broken or their connections on the internal elements may be affected . (For strength of terminals , please refer to JIS C5102 and C5141.)

        10. Keep the following clearance between  the vent of the capacitor and the case of the appliance.Do not block the operation of the vent,unless otherwise described on the catalogues or product specifications.The narrower clearance may adversely affect the vent operation and result in an explosion of the capacitor

        Case diameter                  Clearance
        ψ6.3 to ψ16 mm            2 mm minimum
        ψ18 to ψ 35 mm            3 mm minimum
        ψ40 mm & up               5 mm minimum

        The description in this catalogue is subject to change without prior notice for product improvement.Therefore,please confirm the specification before ordering products.
        ‧The general characteristics,reliability data,etc.,described in this catalogue should not be construed as guaranteed values,they are merely standard values.
        ‧Before using the products , please read the notes in this catalogue carefully for proper use 1-2 Technical Concepts

        1.The material and structure of Electrolytic Capacitors Electrolytic Capacitor is a simple module.It simply contains an insulator between relative conductors in an electrode. The major internal raw material contains an element constructed by an separator paper wrap around the anode foil and cathode foil , which is then impregnated with the electrolyte,inserted into an aluminum case and sealed
        2.Production Processes
        1.Etching:The process to increase surface area of aluminum foil by using chemical erosion or chemical corrosion method is called Etching.Normally chemical corrosion method uses the ripple current of electrolyte , combination of the liquid and temperature to determine the size, shape,and quantity of the dense network of microscopic
        channels on the aluminum foil surface.
        2.Forming:The production process of the anode aluminum foil of electrolytic capacitors is by anodic oxidation of the etched aluminum foil.The production of the cathode aluminum foil sometimes involves oxidation in special purposes.This anodic oxidation process is called Forming . Boric acid or organic acid is used for high voltage
        forming and phosphoric acid or ammonium adipate is used for low voltage forming in order to obtain stable natural oxide layer of  Al2O3.
        3.Slitting:The cutting of the aluminum foil and separator paper according to the required length
        4.Winding:The stitching or cold welding of cut anode and cathode foils and tab terminal , and wrap the electrolytic paper in between the anode and cathode,then fix the end with glue or sticky tape,and attached leads is called the capacitor"element".
        5.Impregnation:The process of eliminating water from the elements by pressurizes or vacuum in order to soak the element with the electrolyte is called Impregnation.The elements fully filled with electrolyte is then centrifuged to remove excess electrolyte.
        6.Assembly:The elements seal with rubber to stop the leakage of electrolyte then slip into a sleeve to form the final product.
        7.Aging:The purpose of Aging is to repair the oxide film damage by recharging and electrolyte.1-3 The Function of Electrolytic Capacitors The electrolytic capacitors could be widely used in appliance(ie.TV,radio,audio equipment,washing machine and air conditioner……etc.),computer equipment (mother board,image device & the peripherals such as the printer drawing device, scanner…etc),communication equipment,estate equipment measure instrument and also the industrial instrument,airplane,firebomb satellite… a piloting equipment
        *According to the inflict electric wave & using purpose,it basically with some classified purposes as below:
        1.DC Voltage:
        a.For Momentary High Voltage:For using to the impulse generator such as the shock wave resistance test of the heavy electric machine.
        b.For High Electric Current:For using to the welding machine,X-Ray facility,copy machine and discharge processing device.
        c.For DC High Voltage:The electrolytic capacitor and rectifier composing ,a special DC high voltage been happened after charged,for using to the power of electronic microscope and accelerator.
        d.For Integration & Memory:For either memory circuit or compare circuit inside the calculator.
        2.The DC voltage that with alternate ingredient:
        a.For Wave Filter:Combination with the chip resistor & inductor as a internet,to be past by DC current or some frequency to closure or decline some other frequency.
        b.For Bypass:A parallel track that outside from the circuit element,the IC (integrated circuit) has been rapidly developing in this years and thus a miniaturization or chip of electrolytic capacitors for by pass was conducted.
        c.For Coupling:Combination of the electrolytic capacitor,chip resistor and inductor and thus coupling together.
        d.For Arising of Toothed Wave: Composing of RC charge/discharge circuit through the electrolytic capacitor as well as the resistor and a toothed wave to be created by the RC charge/discharge circuit.
        e.For Reverse (Change) of Circuit:The equipment for change the AC voltage to DC voltage
        3.For AC voltage
        a.For Power Improving: Connect the end loading of layout transporting & electrolytic capacitor for power improving.
        b.For Wave Filter: Prevention of external interference in SCR circuit,use the LC wave filter circuit to inhibit or erase the interference.
        c.For Phase Across:Phase change of the inductive electromotor (motor) with single phase

        1-4 Basic Electrical Characteristics
        1.Capacitance (E.S.C.)
        Fig.1-3 Simplified equivalent circuit diagram of an electrolytic capacitor
        R:Equivalent series resistance(Ω)
        L:Equivalent aeries inductance(H)

        The capacitive component of the equivalent series circuit (equivalent series capacitance ESC) is determined by applying an alternate voltage of 0.5V at a frequency of 120 Hz .

        Temperature dependence of the capacitance The capacitance of an electrolytic capacitor depends on the temperature:with
        decreasing temperature , the viscosity of the electrolyte increases reducing its conductivity.The capacitance will decrease if the temperature decreases.Furthermore temperature drifts cause armature dilatation and therefore
        capacitance changes (up to20%,depending on the series considered, from 0 to 80°C).This phenomenon is more evident for electrolytic capacitors than for other types
        Fig 1-4 Capacitance change vs.temperature

        Frequency dependence of the capacitance The effective capacitance value is derived from the impedance curve,as long 
        as the impedance is still in the range where the capacitance component is dominant

        Fig 1-5 Capacitance change vs. frequency

        2. Dissipation factor (tanδ)The dissipation factor is the ratio between the active and the reactive power for
        a sinusoidal waveform voltage.It can be thought as a measurement of the gap between an actual and an ideal capacitor.
        Fig 1-6
        D.F.= tanδx 100 (%) =ωCR x 100 (%)
                    = 2πfCR x 100 (%)

        where:R=Equivalent Series Resistance
        C=Equivalent Series Capacitance

        The tanδ is measured with the same set up as for the series capacitance ESC
        Fig 1-7 Dissipation factor vs.temperature
        Fig 1-8 Dissipation factor vs.frequency

        3. Equivalent series resistance (E.S.R.)
        The equivalent series resistanceis the resistive component of the equivalent series
        circuit . The ESR value depends on frequency and temperature and is related to
        the tanδ by the following equation
        The tolerance limits of the rated capacitance must be taken into account when
        calculating this value
        Fig 1-9 ESR change vs.temperature

        The resistance of the electrolyte decreases strongly with increasing
        Fig 1-10 ESR change vs.frequency


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